Budidaya Ikan Sistem Bioflok dan Prospek Bisnis Modern

Sumber : https://www.kompasiana.com/maliamiruddin/5b0fb832f133442308202ce4/budidaya-ikan-a-la-biofloc-dan-prospek-bisnis-modern?page=all

www.depapuyu-farm.com – Siapa ya yang belum mengenal ikan lele? Sepertinya semua pembaca sudah mengenalnya, kan? Yap. Ikan lele adalah salah satu ikan yang dipelihara masyarakat Indonesia selain gurami, emas, nila, gabus dan lain sebagainya.

Ikan lele yang juga merupakan hewan predator di perairan sungai ini ternyata sungguh memancing orang-orang untuk membudidayakannya. Ada yang sekedar iseng karena hiburan semata, namun ada pula yang serius mengelola budidaya lele dengan teknik manajamen pengelolaan yang lebih maju.

Ada sistem yang dibangun dengan sistem yang kekinian. Memelihara lele bukan sekadar memasukkan bibit di dalam kolam, diberi makan dan kemudian dipelihara selama beberapa bulan untuk kemudian mendapat hasilnya.

Ada juga yang bukan hanya memelihara saja, karena ada pula yang sengaja membuat benih untuk dipasarkan, indukan untuk pembenihan, dan ada pula yang murni pembesaran bibit.

Namun di antara mereka yang melakukan pembesaran bibit pun ada yang hanya membesarkan lalu di jual secara ecer, ada pula yang kemudian mengubahnya menjad produk lain. Seperti dibuat kerupuk lele, naget maupun bakso lele yang kini juga banyak tersebar di beberapa wilayah di Indonesia.

Dengan kebutuhan ikan lele yang setiap tahun mengalami peningkatan yaitu 30 % dua tahun terakhir tentu memberikan gambaran jelas bahwa lele masih menjadi primadona dan sumber pangan yang bisa menjadi komoditas ekonomi yg cukup menarik perhatian.

Seperti dilansir oleh lama situs industri bisnis bahwa berdasarkan data Ditjen Perikanan Budidaya Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, produksi lele 2017 mencapai 1,8 juta ton atau melesat 131,7% dari pencapaian tahun sebelumnya. Angka itu di atas target KKP 1,3 juta ton.

Namun, fakta di lapangan memang justru mengalami kondisi yang berbalik arah, ketika berbicara kebutuhan semestinya peningkatan hasil dari peternak lele pun harus meningkat. Seperti misalnya ketika tahun ini diperoleh 2 kuintal sekali panen, seharusnya di panen berikutnya bisa menambah jumlah panenan.

Akan tetapi kondisinya justru sebaliknya, seperti yang saya amati dari kolam-kolam yang terhampar di wilayah Metro, ternyata di antara mereka sudah tidak digunakan untuk budidaya lele, entah apa faktornya. Namun ketika diruntut dari proses pengelolaan dan hasil akhirnya justru para pembudidaya lele ini banyak yang mengalami kerugian.

Kerugian dialami karena pertama faktor dalam produksi, bibit yang dibeli tidak sesuai dengan standar kualitas bibit yang baik, pakan yang cenderung mengalami kenaikan, kondisi cuaca yang berubah-ubah yang justru membuat lele mengalami stres. Dan faktor lainnya adalah nilai jual lele yang cenderung rendah.

Bayangkan dengan harga pakan yang mencapai Rp 10.000,- / kg ternyata harga jual lele hanya sekitar Rp 18.000 / kg, bahkan untuk jenis pakan yang kualitas nomor 1 harganya juga bisa lebih mahal. Belum lagi dari seribu bibit yang ditebar ternyata di akhir pemeliharaan tidak lebih dari 80% jumlah ikan yang dipanen.

Tentu hal ini menjadi faktor penyebab mengapa kebanyakan peternak lele lebih baik menghentikan usahanya daripada terus berproduksi tapi keuntungan enggan diraih.

Dari beberapa masalah yang muncul, kemampuan mengelola yang tepat dan harga jual yang tidak stabil adalah faktor paling menentukan mengapa peternak lele banyak yang gulung tikar. Harga lele yang seharusnya sesuai dengan harga pakan dan ongkos pemeliharaan seperti obat-obatan, kebutuhan air semestinya bisa mendongkrak hasil perikanan ini, sehingga para peternak pun merasakan keuntungan yang sesuai.

Pemeliharan ikan dengan sistem bioflok dan manajemen pengelolaan yang tepat demi hasil yang “nekat” pula

Sistem bioflok merupakan salah satu alternatif pemeliharaan ikan yang memperhatikan standar mutu pemeliharaan, kedisiplinan dan keuletan.

Sebagaimana diketahui bahwa sistem bioflok adalah sistem pemeliharaan ikan yang sudah memodifikasi kolam dengan menambahkan bioflokulan dalam mengatur kondisi air.

Penambahan campuran yang dibuat dari unsur protein, karbohidrat, mineral, serta probiotik dan vitamin memungkinkan sistem ini akan meningkatkan biomassa ikan. Mengubah unsur hara dalam kolam yang berasal dari pakan sisa dan kotoran ikan dan menjadi satu bagian habitat ikan yang semakin membantu proses pertumbuhan yang lebih optimal.

“Memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroorganisme untuk mengubah limbah nitrogen organik (sisa pakan) & an organik (kotoran) menjadi kumpulan biomassa (flok) dengan menyeimbangkan nilai c/n ratio dalam air.” Pengenalan teknologi bioflok (Ita Apriani, S.Pi. M.Si)

Sistem bioflok yang terkenal karena menggunakan tempat yang sempit namun hasil yang melimpah tentu menjadi alternatif bagi para pembudidaya ikan seperti lele dapat meningkatkan produktivitasnya. Membudidayakan lele bukan sekedar memelihara ikan yang hanya berorientasi membesarkan ikan saja, tapi lebih dari itu mendapatkan hasil yang maksimal dengan ikan yang berstandar gizi yang baik.

Namun demikian, kemungkinan antara berhasil dan tidaknya sebuah usaha tentu tidak pernah lepas dalam proses produksi, karena sifat ikan adalah bernyawa dan kondisi lingkungan yang cepat berubah membuat kondisi ikan menjadi lemah. Belum lagi jika penangannya tidak mengikuti standr mutu atau SOP nya, maka hasil yang diinginkan pastilah jauh dari yang diharapkan.

Membangun kemitraan dalam mengatasi kegagalan produksi

Kegagalan sektor perikanan ini ternyata kerap terjadi. Kegagalan bisa disebabkan oleh faktor bibit yang kurang baik, pakan yang juga mungkin kurang tepat, pengelolaan kolam yang salah dan penjualan ikan yang cenderung merugi menjadi penyebab produksi ikan lele menjadi berkurang bahkan ambruk.

Hal tersebut didasari bahwa faktor penentu keberhasilan perikanan juga bergantung pada ketersediaan bibit yang berkualitas, pakan ikan yang berkualitas namun harganya masih terjangkau dan yang pasti nilai jual juga akan menentukan apakah peternak tersebut bisa memproduksi kembali atau tidak.

Jika dari bibit saja sudah kurang layak, pembesarannya juga harus bermodalkan besar mengingat pakan yang mahal ditambah lagi para peternak tersebut kesulitan mengembalikan modal. Tentu alamat buruk terjadi.

Lalu bagaimana persoalan penting tersebut bisa diatasi? Kuncinya membangun mitra bisnis.

Mitra adalah bagian sistem manajemen bisnis yang dikelola secara maju. Seorang peternah maju selalu membuat jaring-jaring kemitraan agar usahanya tersebut bisa berjalan dengan sukses. Misalnya untuk menyediakan bibit, peternak akan bermitra dengan penyedia bibit yang bisa dipercaya.

Pakan ternak yang berkualitas dari penjual yang juga jujur, karena mereka tidak akan mempermainkan kualitas pakan dan harga penjualan termasuk obat-obatan dan vitamin yang dibutuhkan dalam membudidayakan ikan lele.

Dan yang lebih penting adalah penjualan yang stabil sesuai dengan kebutuhan pasar dengan harga yang juga stabil. Selain itu bisa mengolah lele menjadi produk lain juga menjadi faktor penting kesuksesan peternak lele dalam memperoleh peroleh hasil yang maksimal.

Ayo Berkolam Ikan dengan Sistem Bioflok.

Salam Bioflok dari Kami de’PAPUYU Farm

www.depapuyu-farm.com

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